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Side Chair

White, Thomas __Attributed to
Place Made:
Perquimans County North Carolina United States of America
Date Made:
walnut, yellow pine
HOA: 36 1/8; WOA: 19
Accession Number:
DESCRIPTION: Side chair: Yoke back with pierced back splat, shaped crest rail with ears; angled slip seat; straight legs and box stretchers on all sides.

UPHOLSTERY: The seat is covered with old (but not original) leather, probably the most popular covering for slip seats in the Carolina Albermarle.

GROUP: One of three remaining chairs from a larger set, this side chair is clearly related to the work of the Perquimans and Northampton County Quaker cabinetmaker, Thomas White (d. 1788). A corner chair in the MESDA collection (Acc. 3777.1) is also attributed to White. Both chairs share a truncated version of a splat design popular in Newport, Rhode Island, where White is thought to have apprenticed, though the same splat also occurs on Philadelphia, New York, and British chairs. The joinery of this side chair lacks the refinement of the corner chair, however, leading us to question whether another Perquimans school cabinetmaker might have made the side chair? Until that supposition can be proved, this chair will remain attributed to Thomas White. MESDA also has a desk attributed to Thomas White (Acc. 3250).

MAKER: Thomas White (d.1788) was born in Isle of Wight County, Virginia, where his family had lived since the seventeenth century. The Whites were Quakers, members of Western Branch Monthly Meeting in north central Nansemond County.

Thomas’s father Joseph began purchasing land in Perquimans County, North Carolina, as early as 1748; the family moved to North Carolina in 1750. Thomas, however, evidently did not arrive in Perquimans until 1756, when he was granted certificate from the Isle of Wight Meeting to Perquimans Monthly Meeting.

The similarities between White’s work and that of cabinetmakers in Newport, Rhode Island, suggest that White probably spent several years working in that city. Indeed, between 1750 and 1753, a “Thomas White” witnessed two Newport Quaker marriages between members of the well known Goddard and Townsend cabinetmaking families. Although proof that this Thomas White is the North Carolina cabinetmaker is not conclusive, all evidence points to their being the same man.

It seems probable that White returned to Virginia and worked there for a while before moving to Perquimans in 1756. Most of the furniture that White made in North Carolina can be dated very precisely. He owned no land in Perquimans County, so he probably lived with his parents on Castleton’s Creek (now Raccoon Creek). A number of White’s patrons there, judging from the provenance of surviving work, must have been prominent Quaker planters. Six of the eight pieces of furniture attributed to White are attributed to his shop in Perquimans County, effectively dating them between 1756 and 1766.

In 1766, Thomas White moved to Northampton County to marry Pharaby Duke, the daughter of planter John Duke. White and his family lived in a gambrel-roofed house just adjacent to John Duke’s own dwelling. Duke evidently built the house for the couple and allowed them the use of the land. White was active in the affairs of Rich Square Monthly Meeting, just as he had been as a member of Perquimans Meeting. He died in 1788. His son John Duke White may have followed him in the trade, although concrete proof has not been found.

The chair descended in the family of the Reverend Charles Pettigrew (1744-1807) and his wife Mary (Blount) Pettigrew (1750-1786), who was born at Mulberry Hill Plantation in Chowan County. Originally trained as a school teacher, Rev. Pettigrew was ordained an Anglican clergyman and served as the assistant rector and then rector of St. Paul’s Church in Edenton, Rector of Berkeley Parish in Perquimans County, and in 1794 was elected to serve as the first Episcopal bishop of North Carolina.

RELATED WORKS: Portraits of Charles Pettigrew and his wife, Mary Blount, by William Joseph Williams (Acc. 3332-3333)

Credit Line:
Gift of Frank L. Horton